ITAP's Relationship with Geert Hofstede
The Hofstede Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire™ (Hofstede CWQ) is based on the seminal cultural research of Dr. Geert Hofstede. ITAP licenses the Hofstede CWQ from ODE Consulting® Pte. Ltd. The Hofstede CWQ is the only instrument endorsed by Dr. Hofstede. ODE Consulting's licensed CW Partners and Global Resource Team members have worldwide exclusive rights to its use and are approved to represent Dr. Hofstede's research. According to Dr. Hofstede, "This [approval] is due to their professionalism and deep understanding of my work.”
ITAP International was the first organization to license my work. With my support, ITAP prepared the "Culture in the Workplace" (CWQ) questionnaire suitable for use in training and consulting sessions for global companies. My criterion for choosing these questions has been an optimal face value relationship with the particular dimension. Especially in individualist cultures it is essential that participants can compare their own personal answers to their country's dimension scores, but I always stressed that this was a didactic tool. Still, some CWQ questions are similar or identical to the questions used in my Values Survey Modules.
Over time, ITAP retained the answers from their participants, and over the years they accumulated a database with over 8,000 respondents from various companies coming from some 30 countries. The respondents have answered 60 (5 x 12) CWQ questions designed to replicate five dimensions of the Hofstede model. Both ITAP and I were keen on seeing whether in spite of its different purpose, the CWQ database would yield results that resembled my scores. One suggestion I had made was that as the responses came from a very mixed group of respondents (different companies, jobs, etc.) it would be necessary to split them according to demographic criteria, comparing people of the same age, gender and education level, and maybe more.
ITAP’s statistician Michael Huge in 2013 set himself to relating the CWQ database to the Hofstede country scores. Trying different approaches, he got the best results by multiple regression of each of the five dimensions as a dependent variable and the 12 CWQ items as independent variables. In order to control for demographic differences, he also added age, gender, education level) to the independents. In this way, he found very high regression coefficients for PDI, IDV, MAS and LTO, moderate for UAI.
|Power Distance (PDI)||0.94|
|Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)*||0.68|
|Long Term Orientation (LTO)*||0.94|
All numbers are Pearson correlations.
This data suggests that the Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire™ is not only an excellent teaching tool but, in addition, generates research results which correlate with my VSM models. It is thus a unique instrument in the field of cross-cultural learning.
*The names for these dimensions adapted by ITAP for use in the Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire™ are, in order: Certainty, Achievement and Time Orientation.